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The Rock Cuts of Chaffey's Locks
For every trestle along the way, there were many more rock cuts.  The top of the hills were drilled and blasted by hand and the rubble mucked out  by manpower and horsepower.  It wasn't possible to bring in the steam shovels.  All photos are courtesy of Mrs. L. Coon Henson from her uncle's photo collection. 
In the above photo, the trees have been cleared.  Holes have been drilled by hand into the rock, filled with dynamite and blasted.  "Mucking" operations have been started and the rubble is being dumped into the valley to create a roadbed. 
Excavation work has started on the rock cut with the rubble starting to form the roadbed for the track.  Notice that all of this fill is granite-hard rock - typical of the rock of the Canadian Shield.  In the forefront, a team of horses under the guidance of the "teamster" starts back to the face of the rock cut after dumping a load of rubble.   
Here's a clear photo that shows how this material was excavated.  Rails were placed on wooden logs on the excavated ground and "stone boats" lifted onto the tracks.  The stone boats were filled by hand and horses hauled their load to the end of the fill in the previous photo.  The spoil would be dumped and the process would be repeated.  Notice the "frog" in the above photo. 

 
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